Glossary of Terms



Annotations provide additional information about dictionaries created by the user. Annotations are stored in *.ann files, which are UTF16 text files whose .txt extension has been changed to .ann. The name of an annotation file must be the same as the name of the dictionary for which it has been written. Annotation files are optional.



The Bookshelf is a bar that contains all the dictionaries available for the current pair of languages. Dictionaries on the Bookshelf can be enabled or disabled.


Card window

A card window displays dictionary entries which correspond to the word or a phrase typed in the search field.


Conversion is changing the format of ABBYY Lingvo 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, and 11.0 dictionaries so that they can be used in ABBYY Lingvo 12.


Dictionary group

A dictionary group is a set of dictionaries sharing a common feature and joined by the user in a separate group of their own. ABBYY Lingvo will look up a word in the enabled dictionaries of the current dictionary group.


Enabled a dictionary

When you enable a dictionary, Lingvo uses it to translate your queries and to carry out full-text searches. To enable a dictionary, click its button on the Bookshelf.


Full-text search

Full-text search is a search for a word or a phrase in the entire text of all the enabled dictionaries of the selected group, including headwords, translations, examples, and comments.



For each newly added dictionary, Lingvo builds an index, so that the entries from this dictionary can be used in full-text searches.



Labels provide additional information about a word. In Lingvo there are part-of-speech labels, usage labels, register labels, etc. If you drag your mouse pointer over a label, a question mark will appear. Click the question mark to see the full text of the label.

Languages and Groups

Languages and Groups is a panel located above the Bookshelf which displays the current pair of languages and the selected dictionary group.


Monolingual dictionary

A dictionary written in only one language. Monolingual dictionaries include explanatory dictionaries, dictionaries of abbreviations, dictionaries of phrases, dictionaries of synonyms, thesauri, etc. 


Permanent card

A card becomes permanent when you click . Unlike temporary cards, a permanent card will remain open until you close it manually.


Search field

A box at the bottom of the main window where you type or paste words you wish to translate.

Source language

A source language is the language from which you are translating. The source language is chosen from the left drop-down list on the Languages bar. Depending on which language you choose, the set of dictionaries on the Lingvo Bookshelf and words in the word list will change accordingly. 


A subentry is an entry within another entry.

System dictionary

System dictionaries are dictionaries shipped as part of the Lingvo package.


Target language

A target language is the language into which you are translating. The target language is chosen from the right drop-down list on the Languages bar. Depending on which language you choose, the set of dictionaries on the Lingvo Bookshelf and words in the word list will change accordingly.

Temporary card

A temporary card closes when you click the Close Temporary Cards button. By default, all cards you open are temporary.


Thesaurus is a monolingual dictionary in which words a grouped by meaning. 

This version of Lingvo contains The Thesaurus of Russian Business Words, where you can find groups of synonymous words often used in the language of business (e.g. in contracts, technical documents, business letters, etc.). Thesauri are useful when you are not sure which word to use in a given context. They can be a good translation aid when used together with bilingual dictionaries.


Unchangeable words

Words that have only one grammatical word form.

User dictionary

A user dictionary is a dictionary that has been created by a Lingvo user. User dictionaries can be editable (*.lud dictionaries created directly in the Lingvo shell) and non-editable (*.lsd dictionaries created by means of DSL Compiler).